New Flying Wildlife – Part 2

Now, to examine our fishy and “slimy” friends. The obvious first choice from the fish lot is the flying fish. The flying fishes are gliding planktonivores who exit the water to escape predation, one of the major advantages of flight (the other usually being the ability to catch flying or gliding prey). Both the pectoral and pelvic fins are used in “flight” which allows for great surface area for the air to work on and also reduces the need for huge muscles as seen in some of the other fishes to use the gliding behavior. Glides can reach 60 km/h and last for 30 to 50 meters in distance. Flying fish predators might also develop gliding and flight as a means of catching the newly flying Exocoetids (flying fishes are members of Exocoetidae). Two issues with flying fish becoming true fliers: their pelvic muscles may be inadequate and their current plankton diet would hold them back, requiring a change in food.

Unusual this may sound, I think sharks have the possibilities to becoming either gliding or flying predators. From my knowledge,  some of the larger sharks, specifically the great white shark, will “leap” out of the water with thrust in order to capture prey such as seals. I believe that smaller sharps would have the capability to take after this example and maintain short flights out of the water in order to catch fish prey (perhaps flying fish?).

Freshwater hatchetfish have the unusual tendency to fly. These are technically the only fish to use powered flight which makes them good candidates for what is referred to as true flight. This ability is granted by the hatchetfish’s large sternal region and large pectoral fins. Flight has both of the major advantages for the hatchetfish: it allows an escape from aquatic predators and allows for the hatchetfish to catch flying insects. For the Arthropod Era project, I have an idea for descendants of hatchetfish that are slightly larger and have improved the flight behavior by a large extent. To help extend flights, it has air sacs that act like both lungs and “flotation devices”.

I promised to write about flying amphibians but after some thought I don’t think that flight would develop in amphibians, not even the gliding frogs. My main issue is that amphibians require moisture and only in damp, humid areas would this requirement be met.  In a “revisit” to a Carboniferous-type time, the likelihood for flying amphibians would rise. I imagine “pterosaur” or “bat” frogs existing, nothing like birds or insects for sure.

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New Flying Wildlife – Part 1

JeholopterusNow, it isn’t too hard to predict what sorts of creatures might take to the sea and evolve into orders of great marine animals. Much harder is to imagine what sorts of creatures might take flight, spreading their wings for greater evolutionary horizons. You would think that the gliding animals would be first to take the steps towards true flight. But with there being established flying animals in ecosystems, it would take an extinction for the gliding animals to take over. Evolution has ignored this before, though. Even with the magnificent pterosaurs ruling the skies, some small maniraptoran dinosaurs developed the first feathers and started to use them for short flight. Those maniraptors were to achieve something great: the origin of birds, among the most diverse group of vertebrate animals around today. Again, evolution would produce flying creatures when some sort of small shrew-like insectivore began to glide to catch prey. Over time its gliding membrane would become a wing, and we now have bats, the sadly infamous creatures of the dark (bats have been so poorly stereotyped as bloodthirsty mangy nocturnal predators). Now, do I think with birds and bats that some of the current gliding creatures might fly? Not likely. These two groups fill so many niches, so perfectly that I cannot see how any new flying order might evolve with them still being extant. So, what if in some strange extinction all birds and bats went extinct?

Humboldt squid

I shall begin this series with the possibility of flying squids: The squids of Onmastrephidae, the so-called flying squids, are known to proprell themselves from the water using their funnels. This means, basically, that they use jet-propelled flight as a means of locomotion. Thus, if they were to ever master this technique, they would be “jet squids”. Plus, I think the fins have the chance to become muscular and achieve some capability of flapping in order to maintain this strange form of flight. Modern flying squids can glide distances of 50 meters, about the same maximum distance as flying fish. This is a pretty amazing feat if you think about it. Now, interestingly, this group also includes the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas). Not to get off topic, but this is a wonderful species of squid with great evolutionary potential. It is an aggressive predator known to attack divers and fisherman and can weigh up to 100 pounds. It is also the only known invertebrate to hunt cooperatively, something that could lead to specialization in larger prey later on in the evolutionary continuum of this monster of a cephalopod. I will likely touch back on the subject of the Humboldt later on. In Part 2 of this series, I will discuss flying fish, butterflyfish, hatchetfish, and flying frogs. In Part 3, I will discuss gliding reptiles and mammals.

Whale Evolution (video)

Looking at the evolution of the past often helps to predict the evolution of the future. In this case, the evolution of whales may hint at the future evolution of other marine species.